Buying the Stock Market Using Call Spreads
1. Choose your market and expiration
Nadex call spreads give you fewer expiration choices compared to binary options but the dollar value of the call spread range is usually much larger. In this example, our market expectation is bullish. We think the stock market, specifically the E-mini S&P 500® index futures price is going to rally to around 2000.00 by the end of the day’s trading session. We are looking to limit our downside risk and look for a lower cost trade. As you can see from the chart, the market has had a slight retracement of its 50-point rally. This seems like a good level to go long (buy) before a potential continuation up through 2000.00.
The chart below shows the Indicative Index price of the Nadex US500 contract, which is based on the CME E-mini S&P 500® futures. We continuously calculate the indicative index price using the last 25 futures trades as the sample set. This reduces anomalies and creates a reliable price for trading. We use the same calculation for the expiration settlement price.
Your call spread trade already has the built-in protection of knowing your maximum possible loss up front. Where a binary option’s expiration value will be either zero or $100, a call spread’s value can vary from the lowest value of the range up to the highest, with incremental values in between.
You can also choose to exit the call spread trade any time prior to expiration to take an early profit or cut your losses. If however the underlying market goes below or above the call spread range, the price is limited to the low and high strike prices.
2. Buying the call spread near the floor
The 3 colored boxes above represent each call spread contract’s floor and ceiling. The lowest, for example, is the US 500 (Mar) 1940.0 – 1980.0 call spread.
As you can see the underlying market price (E-mini S&P) is around 1977 and we’re looking for the futures to rally into the shaded area representing the 1980.0 – 2000.0 call spread. When you initiate a call spread trade, your call spread price and the underlying price will likely be different. A way to think about it is, the Nadex call spread price is your actual breakeven; it is where you need the underlying market to be at expiration to break even. Obviously you want the underlying market price to be higher than the call spread price where you entered, in order to be profitable.
3. Place your order
At 11: 55 am you decide to buy the US 500 (Mar) 1980.0 – 2020.0 Nadex call spread. The other call spread choices would be more expensive with less profit potential. The reason they are more expensive is that the market is already inside the range of those call spreads. This call spread has 4hours 19minutes remaining until expiring at 4:15pm ET. Its initial cost is comparatively low because the underlying market is still about 3 points below the floor of the call spread.
The order ticket below displays the best bid and best offer. On Nadex you can place limit orders or market orders with protection (MOP) which let you enter at the market but define a tolerance limit for your fill price. This prevents being filled far from where you intended.
The order ticket below shows the following order:
Buy 1 contract of the US500 (Mar) 1980.0- 2020.0 call spread at 1984.2
The order ticket shows your Max loss and Max profit. The max loss is the initial trade cost of the call spread position, like binary options. The dollar range value of this call spread, however, is $400, the difference between the high and low strike prices (2020.0 - 1980.0 = 400 ticks) where the minimum tick value 0.1 equals $1.
The cost reflects the risk exposure of the call spread position. Since we are buying the call spread, our risk comes if the market goes down, so the initial cost is limited to the difference between the current Nadex call spread price and the lower strike of the call spread, or floor. If the call spread price is 1984.2 and the lower strike (floor) is 1980.0, the cost and maximum risk of the position will be 42 ticks or $42.
The maximum profit occurs if the underlying market rallies to the upper boundary of the call spread range (ceiling). If the market goes even higher at expiration, the maximum profit is still capped at the difference between the price at which you entered and the ceiling. As you can see on the order ticket above, the Max profit is $358 which is the difference between 2020.0 (high strike) and 1984.2 (entry price).
On Nadex trading fees and expiration fees are $1 per contract. So in this example, the total cost to enter the trade was $42 + $1 or $43. When you exit the trade, either early or at expiration, you’ll get a second fee of $1 (called a trading fee or expiration fee). If your exit fees would exceed your payout, we'll reduce your fees to equal the payout amount, so you never lose more than you decided when you entered the trade.
4. Manage your trade until exit or expiration
We entered the trade around 1977, or 3 points below the floor, with 4 hours 14 minutes to expiration. That 3 point edge which you give up is why your initial trade cost is low relative to the potential maximum profit if the underlying market trades higher.
Near the floor, the call spread price is less sensitive to the underlying price movement. In other words, while the underlying moves from 1977 up through 1980, the call spread price won’t move much or at all. The call spread behaves much like an out-of-the-money option.
Below you see the Open Positions Window overlaid on the chart. Note the Indicative price is now at 1982.183 which means the underlying market rallied almost 6 points. Meanwhile the Nadex call spread price is 1984.1 bid, noted in the current market tab. That is the price at which you would be able to sell your call spread right now, with 3 hours left until expiration.
About an hour and a half later, the market has gone up over 5 points, though the call spread price is still unchanged, because the price is so close to the floor of the call spread range.
But as the price continues higher, the call spread price moves in closer correlation with it and also goes higher. The trade is now profitable.
Two hours later, both the underlying market and call spread price have gone up further:
In this real market example, the US 500 happened to continue upward as we predicted, reaching 1991.500 with about 19 minutes to expiration.
Not all trades will work out like this. If the underlying market had gone down your initial trade risk would have been limited to the initial cost of the trade. As the market rallies into the middle of the call spread range, you will typically see a greater correlation between the call spread price and the underlying price. Near the floor and ceiling, or outside the range, the correlation is less.
Call Spread Price Correlation to Underlying Indicative Price Time left Nadex price Change Indicative Price Change
1984.2 1976.75 2:55 1984.1 -0.1 1982.183 5.433 2:25 1986.5 2.4 1986 3.817 0:35 1988.4 1.9 1989.083 3.083 0:19 1990.7 2
In this example you had plenty of opportunities to close out the trade for a profit. If you hold your position until expiration, you will receive an email from the exchange informing you that your position has settled. Below is the email for this example, which we held until expiration. As you can see, $108 was deposited into your account. Since your initial cost was $42, your profit is $66 (108-42). Subtract $1.80 from that and your net profit per contract is $64.20.
Your position in the US 500 (Mar) 1980.0-2020.0 (4:15PM) contract has settled. The details of your settled position are shown below for your reference:
Contract: US 500 (Mar) 1980.0-2020.0 (4:15PM)
Expiration Value: 1990.800
Payout Amount: $108.00
Your positions and account balance have been updated accordingly.